Health problems associated with changes in blood pressure should be taken very seriously due to the development of possible complications and the impact on the work of the whole body. It is worth considering two extreme options: when the pressure is high (hypertension) and when the pressure is low (hypotension).
Arterial hypertension is called a persistent increase in pressure above 140/90 mm Hg.art. Treatment of this disease is permanent, lifelong. Man must daily, with no gaps to adhere to the therapy to improve their health.
You can start therapy even without consulting a doctor, because the treatment of hypertension begins with measures to change the way of life. What do they include?
- Fighting overweight (body mass index should be less than 25);
- Getting rid of bad habits (Smoking, alcohol);
- Reduced daily salt intake (5 grams per day or less);
- Expansion of the motor mode (walking);
- Diet food (more complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber and less foods containing large amounts of fat);
- Increasing the amount of micronutrients consumed, what will help multivitamin complexes, consumption of fruits, vegetables, cereals;
- Relaxation therapy to reduce stress.
"It's important!" If you follow all these recommendations in the early stages of the disease, you can do without additional medication.
What can we achieve by simply maintaining the right way of life?
- Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease);
- Reducing the need for medicines, increasing their effectiveness;
- Positive impact on risk factors for hypertension;
- Primary prevention.
If conservative treatment without the help of drugs does not help, then we move on to medical treatment.
In the treatment of hypertension used 6 groups of drugs. They are prescribed by a doctor in the form of monotherapy or in combination with each other.
- Potassium antagonists;
- Antagonists of mineralocorticoid receptors;
- Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors;
- Angiotensin receptor blockers.
Before taking the drug of a particular pharmacological group, you should carefully study the instructions for side effects, carefully read the list of contraindications.
Hypertension increases the risk of heart attack, the development of severe and irreversible pathologies of the cardiovascular system.
Arterial hypotension is called persistent lowering of pressure below 100/60 mm Hg.art.
Non-drug therapy of hypotension, as well as hypertension, is based on the observance of how many principles of a healthy lifestyle:
- Normalization of the day and rest. Sleep should be at least 8 hours a day. You should go to bed every day at the same time;
- Rationalization of work;
- Expansion of motor activity;
- Rational nutrition (it should be full and frequent: at least 4-5 times a day);
- Daily walk;
- Relaxation therapy (massages, communication with a psychologist).
If more than six months of non-drug therapy does not give effect, then the appointment of drugs is shown.
Start therapy should be with adaptogens, which are divided into 3 groups:
- General concreting (Echinacea, nettle, thyme);
- Stimulating with moderate effect (caffeine);
- Stimulating with a strong effect (tincture of Eleutherococcus, ginseng).
In order to normalize vascular tone and its regulation systems, the following groups of drugs are used:
- Psychoactive stimulants, which raise blood pressure without affecting heart rate (sidnofen, amphetamine);
- Adrenomimetics that increase systolic and diastolic pressure (fetanol, effortil, gutron, regulton);
- Anticholinergics in marked decrease in tonus of vessels (belladonna + phenobarbital, belladonna preparations);
- Nootropics (piracetam, aminalon).
Hypotension should be fought because there is a high risk of complications from the cardiovascular and nervous sy stems. Hypotension affects the overall quality of life, increasing fatigue, causing drowsiness, depression of consciousness up to fainting.