What additional studies are carried out in a patient with arterial hypertension?
To detect an increase in blood pressure, as a rule, a simple measurement of blood PRESSURE, and in some cases – daily monitoring of blood PRESSURE.
However, to identify the cause of hypertension and the presence or absence of target organ damage, additional studies are needed: electrocardiography, chest radiography, ultrasound examination of the heart and kidneys.
Assessment of the state of the organs most often suffering from hypertension (target organs), will allow you to choose the right treatment in each case.
It is very important to assess the biochemical and hormonal parameters of the patient. Particular attention is paid to the level of sugar and lipids (cholesterol and, if necessary, the level of high and low density lipoproteins), as hypertension is often combined with the presence of diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular lesions. These diseases are often called “silent killers”, as uncontrolled levels of sugar and cholesterol, especially in the presence of high blood PRESSURE, quickly leads to damage to vessels of different caliber, primarily the heart, brain, kidneys, and accelerates such terrible complications as stroke, myocardial infarction, progression of heart and kidney failure. The state of renal function is indicated by creatinine levels; exceeding the limits of this indicator indicates a violation of renal function, and requires medical advice.
If there are changes in urine tests – the appearance of protein, red blood cells, leukocytes, cylinders, it is necessary to consult specialists (urologist, nephrologist) to exclude secondary renal hypertension. With high numbers of systolic and, especially, diastolic blood PRESSURE, ultrasound examination of renal vessels is carried out, and if necessary, radiopaque (angiography) examination of renal arteries to exclude their narrowing (stenosis).
In some cases there is a need to consult an endocrinologist, since some secondary arterial hypertension linked with disorders of sitewise gland by increasing its function (hyperthyroidism) or decrease (hypothyroidism) and also with the presence of disease of the pituitary or adrenal glands. The vast majority of secondary hypertension in their detection is treated endovascular (stenting), surgically, or – medically.